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THE QUALITY AND DIGNITY OF LIFE AS THE SYMPTOMS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION OF ABORIGINAL RURAL POPULATION AGED 60+ IN POLAND

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THE QUALITY AND DIGNITY OF LIFE AS THE SYMPTOMS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION OF ABORIGINAL RURAL POPULATION AGED 60+ IN POLAND
THE QUALITY AND DIGNITY OF LIFE AS THE SYMPTOMS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION OF ABORIGINAL RURAL POPULATION AGED 60+ IN POLAND

 

Presented work is in line with the scientific discourse on inequality in the social develop ment of rural areas, the marginalisation of the elderly, the perception of the changes that have taken place sińce 1989 and their perception by people aged 60+ living in rural areas. The areas of society's existence, who are villagers are rarely the subject of research in the European Union particularly in Poland.

Categories crucial for the undertaken research issue such as quality and dignity of the life, social exclusion are complex concepts and researches on them belongs to funda mental research problems in economic and social Sciences in generał. Obtained research results, according to the authors affect not only the development of science, but also the development of society in the context of the blurring of social inequality. This study is considered as a contribution to further investigations and research.

 

[[[separator]]]

 

Political transformation and the Polish accession to the European Union are periods that encourage to undertake research aimed at understanding the positives and negatives of phenomena accompanying this period.

Presented elaboration is in line with the scientific discourse on inequality in the social development of rural areas, the marginalisation of the elderly, the perception of the changes that have taken place since 1989 and their perception by people aged 60+ living in rural areas.

The areas of society's existence, who are villagers are rarely the subject of research in the European Union, particularly in Poland . According to the report of the European Commission Poverty and Social Exclusion in Rural Areas, rural areas require a specific approach (system of indicators) to study social exclusion. Research among the rural population is difficult to implement because of the still undetermined methodology for the study of these areas, even in the old EU countries. In the literature, there are no methodological standards.

Social exclusion does not have a one-dimensional character, on the contrary, it is a multi-faceted concept. In broad terms social exclusion refers to a situation in which an individual or a social group do not participate or have limited opportunities to participate, in accordance with the law, in various areas of social, economic, cultural or political life, including the use of public goods and social infrastructure, resources gathering and acquiring income in a dignified manner.

For the purposes of this study, social exclusion is defined as a feeling of being "worse" than others, above all in terms of material status, limited/difficult access to public goods, health, loneliness, lack of social assistance. It is also the digital exclusion, which in the era of freedom of movement, migration and new forms of communication, is very important.

A.E. Woodward and M. Kohl stated that "Social exclusion is a term derived from the discussion of social problems. It covers all or nearly all the problems of modern societies, such as unemployment, discrimination, isolation, material deprivation, poverty".

An important aspect of the social exclusion is its relational character. It was therefore considered that in the study of social exclusion, rural area should have a special attention, because inhabitants of these areas are more frequently than urban dwellers among excluded, or at risk ofbeing excluded. The problem of social exclusion requires a multifaceted approach and empirical diagnosis.

Important elements that characterise the concept of social exclusion are: the excluding situation corresponding to the question of what/who excludes?, unit excluded, i.e. who is excluded? and what does the exclusion concern (what is the unit deprived of)? Social exclusion is not just about a lack of material resources and the inability to participate in a consumer society, but also refers to non-participation or inability to participate in other areas: social, economic, political and cultural.

The factors that pose the biggest threat to the exclusion include, among others: age above 60 years old, disability, loneliness (physical exclusion); living in rural areas, education below secondary level (structural exclusion); addiction to alcohol and drugs, troubles with the law and a feeling of discrimination (normative exclusion); poverty and unemployment (material exclusion), the digital exclusion. These types of exclusion were the subject of the studies. Attention was also paid to the importance of social exclusion for the viability and sustainability of development from the point of view of civilisation gap between the villages and towns in Poland.

For the purpose of the research two hypotheses have been formulated:

H1. The degree of social exclusion of "aboriginal" inhabitants of rural areas in Poland is getting worse, which is due to dependence on the low assessments of the quality and dignity of life.

H2. Subjective assessment of the quality and dignity of life is determined by the assessment of the availability of public goods, social assistance and the current Polish socio-economic situation.

Verifying such a formulated research objective and hypotheses required a study of literature and empirical research. Empirical studies were carried out:

  1. Among people aged 60+, "aboriginal" inhabitants of the villages, on the basis of a questionnaire by direct interview, in four of the poorest regions in Poland, which in the light of the risk indicators of poverty in 2011 (CSO) were Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Świętokrzyskie. The sample size was 400, 100 in each province (quantitative study);

  2. Among the representatives of local governments, social welfare centres, non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and entrepreneurs using focus group interviews, one group in each province (qualitative research).

    Empirical studies of quantitative and qualitative character including visual sociology were completed in 2014 at the Collegium of Management and Finance of Warsaw School of Economics at the Consumer Behaviour Research Unit. The study was funded by the National Science Centre within the framework of the project "Social exclusion - the quality and dignity of life for people aged 60+, "aboriginal" inhabitants of rural areas in Poland" (2013/09/B/HS4/03603).

    The project was implemented in three stages.

    Phase I included the review of data from secondary sources, and quantitative and qualitative research. The quantitative research was carried out on a purposive- quota sample of 400 residents of four provinces (100 respondents from each, the Warmia-Mazury, Podlasie, Lublin, Świetokrzyskie) in 2014-2015. These provinces are a part of the eastern region, the so-called Poland B. The selection criterion of provinces was the highest poverty rate in Poland. Age 60+, the status of "aboriginal" inhabitant of the rural areas, exclusion or threat of exclusion because of the difficult economic and social situation (e.g. disease, lack of family support) were adopted as the main criteria for selection of respondents. Respondents were nominated by a social worker, a member of the parish clubs, or an employee of a local government. Pollsters conducted individual interviews with PAPI technique using an own questionnaire, numbering 62 questions characterising the level, quality and dignity of life. During the quantitative study sociological photography was used. Visual sociology consists of taking pictures, creating documentation of respondent's environment, as the image of living conditions. The primary advantage of using in the study visual sociology is that it complements the information collected within the framework of PAPI interviews and it verifies the respondents' declarations.

    Qualitative research involved conducting focus group interviews (FGI) in four cities (Lublin, Białystok, Olsztyn and Kielce). The meetings were attended by a total of 24 people. Respondents were representatives of local authorities, mayors and representatives of municipalities, representatives of the care centres/ social welfare centres, aid workers, local community leaders, representatives of non-governmental organisations and representatives of the parish clubs involved in charity and social work (e.g. the members of Caritas and the local aid units), i.e. people who know the everyday problems of older people of their region and who affect the life and functioning of the local community. Quoted experts' statements are the result of interviews' transcripts, which is appropriate for qualitative research.

    The results of the study were the inspiration to organise a national conference, which was held in Warsaw on 22 January 2015. Its effect is a monograph published under the title "Social exclusion of elderly people in rural areas - myth or reality", members of the project team presented selected results of empirical research conducted in 2014.

    Phase II consists of developing of the research results - quantitative and qualitative including visual sociology. Triangulation of research methods made the results more similar to reality. On its basis an attempt to answer the following research questions was made:

  1. Is the feeling of social exclusion result of the assessment of quality and dignity of life?

  2. Is the feeling of existence on the margin of life a result of the accompanying thoughts of respondents that no one needs them that they have no influence on anything and are not the subject of interest from local and central authorities?

  3. Is there a symptoms' interaction of social exclusion based on age, gender and assessments of quality and dignity of life?

    The quality of life is understood as spiritual and emotional subjective states, addressing the needs of existence and life in certain external conditions (access to health care, modern telecommunication infrastructure, public transport, social welfare, family, neighbours). The human environment constantly changes, as the same man does - primarily he is aging - which will exacerbate the symptoms of social exclusion. Even if the external environment does not change, quality of life can change, because one gets used to the conditions in which he lives, which may change independently of his will. Quality of life also depends on the environment's pressure.

    The study included the dignity of life, category introduced by J. Drewnowski to social studies, and continued by T. Slaby. The dignity of life is about not feeling states of a sense of injustice and social deprivation, which may result from the negative aspects of living in a changing economic and social realities. The dignity of life corresponds to the challenge in social studies of advisability of assessing the effects of the market economy, taking into account new consumer behaviours that build their social status. According to W. Ostasiewicz a basic premise of a new methodology for measuring social life is the identification of "ill-being" (state and causes of exclusion), which is determined by the material factors, living in specific socio-political conditions and in an increasingly degraded environment, aggressive market activity and own mental aptitude. The term is particularly appropriate to the situation of poverty, unemployment, loss of physical and mental health, unfavourable demographic changes, the condition of natural and artificial environment and social exclusion, which are, among others, in Poland a result of systemic changes, accession to the European Union, and the economic crisis. Z. Bauman says that "the social denial of the one's own dignity, impairment and humiliation", which today poor people are experiencing, is the most important factor characterising their current situation, sort of the equivalent of exploitation that played a critical role in previous eras and systems.

    The result of the third phase of studies is the development of the final report, which outlines the methodology works and their results after the implementation of the research and also two monographs (in Polish and English) were prepared. The analysis of the research results in the context of the answer to the question formulated as a research objective has been made and research hypotheses have been verified in the third phase.

    Analysis of the impact of differentiation degree of subjective assessments of the exclusion's degree and subjective judgments of the quality and dignity of life (categories determined by human needs) showed the impact of different reasons for being excluded.

    The monograph consists of five chapters.

    In Chapter I reference is made to the changes that have occurred in the rural areas in the years 1990-2014. It discusses trends of changes in rural areas in the twentieth and twenty-first century. Rural areas defined as areas located outside the administrative borders of towns occupy 93.1% of the Polish territory. Adopted study period is characterised by a large and diverse transformations in the countryside - the transformation of the system and the Polish accession to the European Union, which entailed costs and benefits. It is also a period oflong-term processes - decrease of rural area population due to general population disruralisation, disagrarisation and restratification that began before 1989, but gained momentum in the years in question, as confirmed by the submitted statistical data. This chapter also presents the perception changes by the aboriginal rural population aged 60+ in the light of the results of quantitative and qualitative research. Characteristically, the majority of respondents (42%) do not see the changes that have taken place, in their subjective opinions, their lives look like they used to be. Slightly less people think that their life is better, or rather better (41%), only 5% of respondents indicated the answer "definitely worse". According to the vast majority of respondents older people currently have no influence on anything, they just want to live peacefully, but without financial problems, and the family and neighbours are their support in the difficult moments.

    Chapter II is devoted to the considerations about the financial situation of people living in rural areas with special emphasis on seniors. Based on data from secondary sources, mainly from the Central Statistical Office, an analysis of the income situation of the population living in rural areas has been conducted. The structure of expenditure and level of equipment of their household in durable goods have been analysed. It shows an improvement in the average financial situation of households and rising level of durable goods. Also there were presented results of empirical research (quantitative), in which respondents were older, aboriginal villagers. Analysis of the socio-economic situation of households in this group of the population consisted of sources of means of support, the use of durable goods and selected services - health, culture and tourism. The main source of income of surveyed rural population was retirement pension, or disability pension (89%). Elders, aboriginal villagers benefited primarily from the medical services paid for by the National Health Fund (NFZ), and most often it was a visit to a primary care physician. The most common form of cultural participation was watching TV. A small percentage of respondents have gone on a trip recently. This chapter also contains a subjective assessment of material and housing conditions in relation to other people of a similar age living in the same village.

    The third chapter is devoted to social exclusion, which is presented in the light of theory and empirical research. Social exclusion is a concept which has its objective and subjective connotation. At the same time it is a universal phenomenon, and therefore occurs at all stages of social life and in all cultures, and in fact it corresponds in some way with the problem of inequality and social discrimination that characterised the societies regardless of time and space. The ideas of theorists, and at the same time ancestors of contemporary views on social exclusion have been discussed. In most studies education, lifelong learning are the most important factors for preventing exclusion both at the individual and society level. This chapter also shows the impact of the transformation of social exclusion, with particular emphasis on the rural population. Deficits regarded by residents were presented as symptoms of social exclusion.

    The fourth chapter discusses the problem of the quality and dignity of life in the context of the exclusion of elderly rural population in the light of the study results. Social exclusion is a multidimensional concept. In the empirical study of social exclusion of the aboriginal people of the Polish rural areas aged 60+ one used qualitative (i.e. soft), and quantitative (i.e. hard data) variables, resorted also to sociological photography. It gave a rise to the need for the use of statistical methods for the description of distributions of the answers, but also the attempt to use methods of multivariate analysis. It was assumed that the degree of social exclusion varies primarily due to the subjective evaluation of the quality and dignity of life, as a result of living in certain conditions that affect the degree of satisfaction of needs shaping the quality of life. The search for determinants was held through the one-way and two-way variance analysis in order to answer the question of whether the selected variables potentially differentiating assessments of social exclusion may be the elements of the set of diagnosing variables, and thus a tool of social policy. The analysis of interdependence based on the two- dimensional distributions (so-called 'crosswords'), which allowed to numerically assess the strength of dependencies of the determinants of social marginalisation and logistic regression model, in which marginalisation as the dependent variable took the form of a binary variable, has been used. Multivariate analysis was preceded by a description of the structure of the distribution of answers to questions that have been selected as characterising the situation of the respondents in relation to their quality and dignity of life, and thus determining the state of social exclusion of aboriginal people aged 60+ from rural areas.

    In the fifth chapter, reference is made to the policy on older people in the European Union and in Poland. The aging population has become a problem of Europe, including the European Union, and thus also Poland. The European

    Union has repeatedly emphasised that the elderly have the right to a dignified and independent life, which has been expressed in numerous documents. In 2010, the European Parliament adopted a Resolution entitled "Demographic challenge and solidarity between generations", which calls on Member States to make the elderly active as one of the priorities for the coming years, and 2012 was the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations. Thus one has created the opportunity to pay more attention to the elderly, the need to promote solidarity, cooperation and understanding between generations and, promote the participation of young people and older people in joint initiatives. The senior policy is getting more and more attention in Poland pointing to the causes and consequences. The aim of the senior policy in Poland is to support and provide opportunities for active healthy aging and opportunities for continued autonomous, independent and fulfilled life, even when some functional limitations are present. This chapter also highlights local policy for the elderly in the rural areas. After P. Bledowski one highlighted and discussed areas that determine the effectiveness of measures implemented in relation to the elderly. These are firstly the correct and regularly updated diagnosis of the situation and the needs of the older generation, secondly monitoring of activities undertaken by various actors at national and local level and, thirdly rational management of public funds, allocated for the implementation of these activities. The results of quantitative research can provide information about the situation and needs of the older generation the residents of studied provinces.

    Categories crucial for the undertaken research issue, such as quality of life, dignity of life, and social exclusion are complex concepts, and research on them belongs to fundamental research problems in economic sciences and the social sciences in general. Obtained research results, according to the authors, will affect not only the development of science, but also the development of society in the context of the blurring of social inequality. This study is considered as a contribution to further investigations and research.

    The authors hope that the undertaken issue will be of interest to a wide circle of readers - students, researchers, business practitioners, and representatives of social policy for whom the social exclusion is an interesting issue and research area.

     

 

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Preface

Chapter I. The Changes Taking Place in the Polish Countryside in the Years

1990-2014 and Their Perception by Older, Aboriginal People

Introduction

1.1. Directions of Changes in the Rural Areas in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Century

1.2. Perception of Changes by Aboriginal Rural Population Aged 60+ (Research Results)

Conclusions

Chapter II. The Financial Situation of Elderly Living in the Rural Areas in Poland

Introduction

2.1. Financial Situation of Elderly Living in the Rural Areas in the Light of Secondary Data

2.2. Economic and Social Situation in the Households of Elderly, Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Rural Areas (Empirical Research)

Conclusions

Chapter III. The Social Exclusion - Theoretical and Empirical Approach

Introduction

3.1. Social Exclusion - Definition and Conditions

3.2. Fighting Against Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Social Policy of Selected Countries

3.3. Age as a Risk Factor of Social Exclusion

3.4. The Influence of the Transformation on the Phenomenon of Social Exclusion With Particular Emphasis on Rural Residents

3.5. Deficits Felt by Residents as Symptoms of Social Exclusion

3.6. The Scope and Conditions of Social Exclusion With Particular Attention to Discrimination

3.7. Types of Social Exclusion

Conclusions

 

Chapter IV. The Determinants of Social Exclusion of Aboriginal Rural Population Aged 60+

Introduction

4.1. Respondents' Characteristics

4.2. Analysis of the Interdependencies of Social Exclusion and Characteristics of the Respondent

Conclusions

Chapter V. The Policy Towards Elderly in the European Union and in Poland

Introduction

5.1. Elderly as a Subject of Interest of the European Union's Policy

5.2. Place of the Elderly in the Policy of Poland

5.3. Policy Towards Elderly Living in Rural Areas

Conclusions

Bibliography

 

Opis

Wydanie: I
Rok wydania: 2016
Wydawnictwo: Oficyna Wydawnicza
Oprawa: miękka
Format: B5
Liczba stron: 124

 

Presented work is in line with the scientific discourse on inequality in the social develop ment of rural areas, the marginalisation of the elderly, the perception of the changes that have taken place sińce 1989 and their perception by people aged 60+ living in rural areas. The areas of society's existence, who are villagers are rarely the subject of research in the European Union particularly in Poland.

Categories crucial for the undertaken research issue such as quality and dignity of the life, social exclusion are complex concepts and researches on them belongs to funda mental research problems in economic and social Sciences in generał. Obtained research results, according to the authors affect not only the development of science, but also the development of society in the context of the blurring of social inequality. This study is considered as a contribution to further investigations and research.

 

Wstęp

 

Political transformation and the Polish accession to the European Union are periods that encourage to undertake research aimed at understanding the positives and negatives of phenomena accompanying this period.

Presented elaboration is in line with the scientific discourse on inequality in the social development of rural areas, the marginalisation of the elderly, the perception of the changes that have taken place since 1989 and their perception by people aged 60+ living in rural areas.

The areas of society's existence, who are villagers are rarely the subject of research in the European Union, particularly in Poland . According to the report of the European Commission Poverty and Social Exclusion in Rural Areas, rural areas require a specific approach (system of indicators) to study social exclusion. Research among the rural population is difficult to implement because of the still undetermined methodology for the study of these areas, even in the old EU countries. In the literature, there are no methodological standards.

Social exclusion does not have a one-dimensional character, on the contrary, it is a multi-faceted concept. In broad terms social exclusion refers to a situation in which an individual or a social group do not participate or have limited opportunities to participate, in accordance with the law, in various areas of social, economic, cultural or political life, including the use of public goods and social infrastructure, resources gathering and acquiring income in a dignified manner.

For the purposes of this study, social exclusion is defined as a feeling of being "worse" than others, above all in terms of material status, limited/difficult access to public goods, health, loneliness, lack of social assistance. It is also the digital exclusion, which in the era of freedom of movement, migration and new forms of communication, is very important.

A.E. Woodward and M. Kohl stated that "Social exclusion is a term derived from the discussion of social problems. It covers all or nearly all the problems of modern societies, such as unemployment, discrimination, isolation, material deprivation, poverty".

An important aspect of the social exclusion is its relational character. It was therefore considered that in the study of social exclusion, rural area should have a special attention, because inhabitants of these areas are more frequently than urban dwellers among excluded, or at risk ofbeing excluded. The problem of social exclusion requires a multifaceted approach and empirical diagnosis.

Important elements that characterise the concept of social exclusion are: the excluding situation corresponding to the question of what/who excludes?, unit excluded, i.e. who is excluded? and what does the exclusion concern (what is the unit deprived of)? Social exclusion is not just about a lack of material resources and the inability to participate in a consumer society, but also refers to non-participation or inability to participate in other areas: social, economic, political and cultural.

The factors that pose the biggest threat to the exclusion include, among others: age above 60 years old, disability, loneliness (physical exclusion); living in rural areas, education below secondary level (structural exclusion); addiction to alcohol and drugs, troubles with the law and a feeling of discrimination (normative exclusion); poverty and unemployment (material exclusion), the digital exclusion. These types of exclusion were the subject of the studies. Attention was also paid to the importance of social exclusion for the viability and sustainability of development from the point of view of civilisation gap between the villages and towns in Poland.

For the purpose of the research two hypotheses have been formulated:

H1. The degree of social exclusion of "aboriginal" inhabitants of rural areas in Poland is getting worse, which is due to dependence on the low assessments of the quality and dignity of life.

H2. Subjective assessment of the quality and dignity of life is determined by the assessment of the availability of public goods, social assistance and the current Polish socio-economic situation.

Verifying such a formulated research objective and hypotheses required a study of literature and empirical research. Empirical studies were carried out:

  1. Among people aged 60+, "aboriginal" inhabitants of the villages, on the basis of a questionnaire by direct interview, in four of the poorest regions in Poland, which in the light of the risk indicators of poverty in 2011 (CSO) were Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Świętokrzyskie. The sample size was 400, 100 in each province (quantitative study);

  2. Among the representatives of local governments, social welfare centres, non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and entrepreneurs using focus group interviews, one group in each province (qualitative research).

    Empirical studies of quantitative and qualitative character including visual sociology were completed in 2014 at the Collegium of Management and Finance of Warsaw School of Economics at the Consumer Behaviour Research Unit. The study was funded by the National Science Centre within the framework of the project "Social exclusion - the quality and dignity of life for people aged 60+, "aboriginal" inhabitants of rural areas in Poland" (2013/09/B/HS4/03603).

    The project was implemented in three stages.

    Phase I included the review of data from secondary sources, and quantitative and qualitative research. The quantitative research was carried out on a purposive- quota sample of 400 residents of four provinces (100 respondents from each, the Warmia-Mazury, Podlasie, Lublin, Świetokrzyskie) in 2014-2015. These provinces are a part of the eastern region, the so-called Poland B. The selection criterion of provinces was the highest poverty rate in Poland. Age 60+, the status of "aboriginal" inhabitant of the rural areas, exclusion or threat of exclusion because of the difficult economic and social situation (e.g. disease, lack of family support) were adopted as the main criteria for selection of respondents. Respondents were nominated by a social worker, a member of the parish clubs, or an employee of a local government. Pollsters conducted individual interviews with PAPI technique using an own questionnaire, numbering 62 questions characterising the level, quality and dignity of life. During the quantitative study sociological photography was used. Visual sociology consists of taking pictures, creating documentation of respondent's environment, as the image of living conditions. The primary advantage of using in the study visual sociology is that it complements the information collected within the framework of PAPI interviews and it verifies the respondents' declarations.

    Qualitative research involved conducting focus group interviews (FGI) in four cities (Lublin, Białystok, Olsztyn and Kielce). The meetings were attended by a total of 24 people. Respondents were representatives of local authorities, mayors and representatives of municipalities, representatives of the care centres/ social welfare centres, aid workers, local community leaders, representatives of non-governmental organisations and representatives of the parish clubs involved in charity and social work (e.g. the members of Caritas and the local aid units), i.e. people who know the everyday problems of older people of their region and who affect the life and functioning of the local community. Quoted experts' statements are the result of interviews' transcripts, which is appropriate for qualitative research.

    The results of the study were the inspiration to organise a national conference, which was held in Warsaw on 22 January 2015. Its effect is a monograph published under the title "Social exclusion of elderly people in rural areas - myth or reality", members of the project team presented selected results of empirical research conducted in 2014.

    Phase II consists of developing of the research results - quantitative and qualitative including visual sociology. Triangulation of research methods made the results more similar to reality. On its basis an attempt to answer the following research questions was made:

  1. Is the feeling of social exclusion result of the assessment of quality and dignity of life?

  2. Is the feeling of existence on the margin of life a result of the accompanying thoughts of respondents that no one needs them that they have no influence on anything and are not the subject of interest from local and central authorities?

  3. Is there a symptoms' interaction of social exclusion based on age, gender and assessments of quality and dignity of life?

    The quality of life is understood as spiritual and emotional subjective states, addressing the needs of existence and life in certain external conditions (access to health care, modern telecommunication infrastructure, public transport, social welfare, family, neighbours). The human environment constantly changes, as the same man does - primarily he is aging - which will exacerbate the symptoms of social exclusion. Even if the external environment does not change, quality of life can change, because one gets used to the conditions in which he lives, which may change independently of his will. Quality of life also depends on the environment's pressure.

    The study included the dignity of life, category introduced by J. Drewnowski to social studies, and continued by T. Slaby. The dignity of life is about not feeling states of a sense of injustice and social deprivation, which may result from the negative aspects of living in a changing economic and social realities. The dignity of life corresponds to the challenge in social studies of advisability of assessing the effects of the market economy, taking into account new consumer behaviours that build their social status. According to W. Ostasiewicz a basic premise of a new methodology for measuring social life is the identification of "ill-being" (state and causes of exclusion), which is determined by the material factors, living in specific socio-political conditions and in an increasingly degraded environment, aggressive market activity and own mental aptitude. The term is particularly appropriate to the situation of poverty, unemployment, loss of physical and mental health, unfavourable demographic changes, the condition of natural and artificial environment and social exclusion, which are, among others, in Poland a result of systemic changes, accession to the European Union, and the economic crisis. Z. Bauman says that "the social denial of the one's own dignity, impairment and humiliation", which today poor people are experiencing, is the most important factor characterising their current situation, sort of the equivalent of exploitation that played a critical role in previous eras and systems.

    The result of the third phase of studies is the development of the final report, which outlines the methodology works and their results after the implementation of the research and also two monographs (in Polish and English) were prepared. The analysis of the research results in the context of the answer to the question formulated as a research objective has been made and research hypotheses have been verified in the third phase.

    Analysis of the impact of differentiation degree of subjective assessments of the exclusion's degree and subjective judgments of the quality and dignity of life (categories determined by human needs) showed the impact of different reasons for being excluded.

    The monograph consists of five chapters.

    In Chapter I reference is made to the changes that have occurred in the rural areas in the years 1990-2014. It discusses trends of changes in rural areas in the twentieth and twenty-first century. Rural areas defined as areas located outside the administrative borders of towns occupy 93.1% of the Polish territory. Adopted study period is characterised by a large and diverse transformations in the countryside - the transformation of the system and the Polish accession to the European Union, which entailed costs and benefits. It is also a period oflong-term processes - decrease of rural area population due to general population disruralisation, disagrarisation and restratification that began before 1989, but gained momentum in the years in question, as confirmed by the submitted statistical data. This chapter also presents the perception changes by the aboriginal rural population aged 60+ in the light of the results of quantitative and qualitative research. Characteristically, the majority of respondents (42%) do not see the changes that have taken place, in their subjective opinions, their lives look like they used to be. Slightly less people think that their life is better, or rather better (41%), only 5% of respondents indicated the answer "definitely worse". According to the vast majority of respondents older people currently have no influence on anything, they just want to live peacefully, but without financial problems, and the family and neighbours are their support in the difficult moments.

    Chapter II is devoted to the considerations about the financial situation of people living in rural areas with special emphasis on seniors. Based on data from secondary sources, mainly from the Central Statistical Office, an analysis of the income situation of the population living in rural areas has been conducted. The structure of expenditure and level of equipment of their household in durable goods have been analysed. It shows an improvement in the average financial situation of households and rising level of durable goods. Also there were presented results of empirical research (quantitative), in which respondents were older, aboriginal villagers. Analysis of the socio-economic situation of households in this group of the population consisted of sources of means of support, the use of durable goods and selected services - health, culture and tourism. The main source of income of surveyed rural population was retirement pension, or disability pension (89%). Elders, aboriginal villagers benefited primarily from the medical services paid for by the National Health Fund (NFZ), and most often it was a visit to a primary care physician. The most common form of cultural participation was watching TV. A small percentage of respondents have gone on a trip recently. This chapter also contains a subjective assessment of material and housing conditions in relation to other people of a similar age living in the same village.

    The third chapter is devoted to social exclusion, which is presented in the light of theory and empirical research. Social exclusion is a concept which has its objective and subjective connotation. At the same time it is a universal phenomenon, and therefore occurs at all stages of social life and in all cultures, and in fact it corresponds in some way with the problem of inequality and social discrimination that characterised the societies regardless of time and space. The ideas of theorists, and at the same time ancestors of contemporary views on social exclusion have been discussed. In most studies education, lifelong learning are the most important factors for preventing exclusion both at the individual and society level. This chapter also shows the impact of the transformation of social exclusion, with particular emphasis on the rural population. Deficits regarded by residents were presented as symptoms of social exclusion.

    The fourth chapter discusses the problem of the quality and dignity of life in the context of the exclusion of elderly rural population in the light of the study results. Social exclusion is a multidimensional concept. In the empirical study of social exclusion of the aboriginal people of the Polish rural areas aged 60+ one used qualitative (i.e. soft), and quantitative (i.e. hard data) variables, resorted also to sociological photography. It gave a rise to the need for the use of statistical methods for the description of distributions of the answers, but also the attempt to use methods of multivariate analysis. It was assumed that the degree of social exclusion varies primarily due to the subjective evaluation of the quality and dignity of life, as a result of living in certain conditions that affect the degree of satisfaction of needs shaping the quality of life. The search for determinants was held through the one-way and two-way variance analysis in order to answer the question of whether the selected variables potentially differentiating assessments of social exclusion may be the elements of the set of diagnosing variables, and thus a tool of social policy. The analysis of interdependence based on the two- dimensional distributions (so-called 'crosswords'), which allowed to numerically assess the strength of dependencies of the determinants of social marginalisation and logistic regression model, in which marginalisation as the dependent variable took the form of a binary variable, has been used. Multivariate analysis was preceded by a description of the structure of the distribution of answers to questions that have been selected as characterising the situation of the respondents in relation to their quality and dignity of life, and thus determining the state of social exclusion of aboriginal people aged 60+ from rural areas.

    In the fifth chapter, reference is made to the policy on older people in the European Union and in Poland. The aging population has become a problem of Europe, including the European Union, and thus also Poland. The European

    Union has repeatedly emphasised that the elderly have the right to a dignified and independent life, which has been expressed in numerous documents. In 2010, the European Parliament adopted a Resolution entitled "Demographic challenge and solidarity between generations", which calls on Member States to make the elderly active as one of the priorities for the coming years, and 2012 was the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations. Thus one has created the opportunity to pay more attention to the elderly, the need to promote solidarity, cooperation and understanding between generations and, promote the participation of young people and older people in joint initiatives. The senior policy is getting more and more attention in Poland pointing to the causes and consequences. The aim of the senior policy in Poland is to support and provide opportunities for active healthy aging and opportunities for continued autonomous, independent and fulfilled life, even when some functional limitations are present. This chapter also highlights local policy for the elderly in the rural areas. After P. Bledowski one highlighted and discussed areas that determine the effectiveness of measures implemented in relation to the elderly. These are firstly the correct and regularly updated diagnosis of the situation and the needs of the older generation, secondly monitoring of activities undertaken by various actors at national and local level and, thirdly rational management of public funds, allocated for the implementation of these activities. The results of quantitative research can provide information about the situation and needs of the older generation the residents of studied provinces.

    Categories crucial for the undertaken research issue, such as quality of life, dignity of life, and social exclusion are complex concepts, and research on them belongs to fundamental research problems in economic sciences and the social sciences in general. Obtained research results, according to the authors, will affect not only the development of science, but also the development of society in the context of the blurring of social inequality. This study is considered as a contribution to further investigations and research.

    The authors hope that the undertaken issue will be of interest to a wide circle of readers - students, researchers, business practitioners, and representatives of social policy for whom the social exclusion is an interesting issue and research area.

     

 

Spis treści

 

Preface

Chapter I. The Changes Taking Place in the Polish Countryside in the Years

1990-2014 and Their Perception by Older, Aboriginal People

Introduction

1.1. Directions of Changes in the Rural Areas in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Century

1.2. Perception of Changes by Aboriginal Rural Population Aged 60+ (Research Results)

Conclusions

Chapter II. The Financial Situation of Elderly Living in the Rural Areas in Poland

Introduction

2.1. Financial Situation of Elderly Living in the Rural Areas in the Light of Secondary Data

2.2. Economic and Social Situation in the Households of Elderly, Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Rural Areas (Empirical Research)

Conclusions

Chapter III. The Social Exclusion - Theoretical and Empirical Approach

Introduction

3.1. Social Exclusion - Definition and Conditions

3.2. Fighting Against Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Social Policy of Selected Countries

3.3. Age as a Risk Factor of Social Exclusion

3.4. The Influence of the Transformation on the Phenomenon of Social Exclusion With Particular Emphasis on Rural Residents

3.5. Deficits Felt by Residents as Symptoms of Social Exclusion

3.6. The Scope and Conditions of Social Exclusion With Particular Attention to Discrimination

3.7. Types of Social Exclusion

Conclusions

 

Chapter IV. The Determinants of Social Exclusion of Aboriginal Rural Population Aged 60+

Introduction

4.1. Respondents' Characteristics

4.2. Analysis of the Interdependencies of Social Exclusion and Characteristics of the Respondent

Conclusions

Chapter V. The Policy Towards Elderly in the European Union and in Poland

Introduction

5.1. Elderly as a Subject of Interest of the European Union's Policy

5.2. Place of the Elderly in the Policy of Poland

5.3. Policy Towards Elderly Living in Rural Areas

Conclusions

Bibliography

 

Opinie

Twoja ocena:
Wydanie: I
Rok wydania: 2016
Wydawnictwo: Oficyna Wydawnicza
Oprawa: miękka
Format: B5
Liczba stron: 124

 

Presented work is in line with the scientific discourse on inequality in the social develop ment of rural areas, the marginalisation of the elderly, the perception of the changes that have taken place sińce 1989 and their perception by people aged 60+ living in rural areas. The areas of society's existence, who are villagers are rarely the subject of research in the European Union particularly in Poland.

Categories crucial for the undertaken research issue such as quality and dignity of the life, social exclusion are complex concepts and researches on them belongs to funda mental research problems in economic and social Sciences in generał. Obtained research results, according to the authors affect not only the development of science, but also the development of society in the context of the blurring of social inequality. This study is considered as a contribution to further investigations and research.

 

 

Political transformation and the Polish accession to the European Union are periods that encourage to undertake research aimed at understanding the positives and negatives of phenomena accompanying this period.

Presented elaboration is in line with the scientific discourse on inequality in the social development of rural areas, the marginalisation of the elderly, the perception of the changes that have taken place since 1989 and their perception by people aged 60+ living in rural areas.

The areas of society's existence, who are villagers are rarely the subject of research in the European Union, particularly in Poland . According to the report of the European Commission Poverty and Social Exclusion in Rural Areas, rural areas require a specific approach (system of indicators) to study social exclusion. Research among the rural population is difficult to implement because of the still undetermined methodology for the study of these areas, even in the old EU countries. In the literature, there are no methodological standards.

Social exclusion does not have a one-dimensional character, on the contrary, it is a multi-faceted concept. In broad terms social exclusion refers to a situation in which an individual or a social group do not participate or have limited opportunities to participate, in accordance with the law, in various areas of social, economic, cultural or political life, including the use of public goods and social infrastructure, resources gathering and acquiring income in a dignified manner.

For the purposes of this study, social exclusion is defined as a feeling of being "worse" than others, above all in terms of material status, limited/difficult access to public goods, health, loneliness, lack of social assistance. It is also the digital exclusion, which in the era of freedom of movement, migration and new forms of communication, is very important.

A.E. Woodward and M. Kohl stated that "Social exclusion is a term derived from the discussion of social problems. It covers all or nearly all the problems of modern societies, such as unemployment, discrimination, isolation, material deprivation, poverty".

An important aspect of the social exclusion is its relational character. It was therefore considered that in the study of social exclusion, rural area should have a special attention, because inhabitants of these areas are more frequently than urban dwellers among excluded, or at risk ofbeing excluded. The problem of social exclusion requires a multifaceted approach and empirical diagnosis.

Important elements that characterise the concept of social exclusion are: the excluding situation corresponding to the question of what/who excludes?, unit excluded, i.e. who is excluded? and what does the exclusion concern (what is the unit deprived of)? Social exclusion is not just about a lack of material resources and the inability to participate in a consumer society, but also refers to non-participation or inability to participate in other areas: social, economic, political and cultural.

The factors that pose the biggest threat to the exclusion include, among others: age above 60 years old, disability, loneliness (physical exclusion); living in rural areas, education below secondary level (structural exclusion); addiction to alcohol and drugs, troubles with the law and a feeling of discrimination (normative exclusion); poverty and unemployment (material exclusion), the digital exclusion. These types of exclusion were the subject of the studies. Attention was also paid to the importance of social exclusion for the viability and sustainability of development from the point of view of civilisation gap between the villages and towns in Poland.

For the purpose of the research two hypotheses have been formulated:

H1. The degree of social exclusion of "aboriginal" inhabitants of rural areas in Poland is getting worse, which is due to dependence on the low assessments of the quality and dignity of life.

H2. Subjective assessment of the quality and dignity of life is determined by the assessment of the availability of public goods, social assistance and the current Polish socio-economic situation.

Verifying such a formulated research objective and hypotheses required a study of literature and empirical research. Empirical studies were carried out:

  1. Among people aged 60+, "aboriginal" inhabitants of the villages, on the basis of a questionnaire by direct interview, in four of the poorest regions in Poland, which in the light of the risk indicators of poverty in 2011 (CSO) were Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Świętokrzyskie. The sample size was 400, 100 in each province (quantitative study);

  2. Among the representatives of local governments, social welfare centres, non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and entrepreneurs using focus group interviews, one group in each province (qualitative research).

    Empirical studies of quantitative and qualitative character including visual sociology were completed in 2014 at the Collegium of Management and Finance of Warsaw School of Economics at the Consumer Behaviour Research Unit. The study was funded by the National Science Centre within the framework of the project "Social exclusion - the quality and dignity of life for people aged 60+, "aboriginal" inhabitants of rural areas in Poland" (2013/09/B/HS4/03603).

    The project was implemented in three stages.

    Phase I included the review of data from secondary sources, and quantitative and qualitative research. The quantitative research was carried out on a purposive- quota sample of 400 residents of four provinces (100 respondents from each, the Warmia-Mazury, Podlasie, Lublin, Świetokrzyskie) in 2014-2015. These provinces are a part of the eastern region, the so-called Poland B. The selection criterion of provinces was the highest poverty rate in Poland. Age 60+, the status of "aboriginal" inhabitant of the rural areas, exclusion or threat of exclusion because of the difficult economic and social situation (e.g. disease, lack of family support) were adopted as the main criteria for selection of respondents. Respondents were nominated by a social worker, a member of the parish clubs, or an employee of a local government. Pollsters conducted individual interviews with PAPI technique using an own questionnaire, numbering 62 questions characterising the level, quality and dignity of life. During the quantitative study sociological photography was used. Visual sociology consists of taking pictures, creating documentation of respondent's environment, as the image of living conditions. The primary advantage of using in the study visual sociology is that it complements the information collected within the framework of PAPI interviews and it verifies the respondents' declarations.

    Qualitative research involved conducting focus group interviews (FGI) in four cities (Lublin, Białystok, Olsztyn and Kielce). The meetings were attended by a total of 24 people. Respondents were representatives of local authorities, mayors and representatives of municipalities, representatives of the care centres/ social welfare centres, aid workers, local community leaders, representatives of non-governmental organisations and representatives of the parish clubs involved in charity and social work (e.g. the members of Caritas and the local aid units), i.e. people who know the everyday problems of older people of their region and who affect the life and functioning of the local community. Quoted experts' statements are the result of interviews' transcripts, which is appropriate for qualitative research.

    The results of the study were the inspiration to organise a national conference, which was held in Warsaw on 22 January 2015. Its effect is a monograph published under the title "Social exclusion of elderly people in rural areas - myth or reality", members of the project team presented selected results of empirical research conducted in 2014.

    Phase II consists of developing of the research results - quantitative and qualitative including visual sociology. Triangulation of research methods made the results more similar to reality. On its basis an attempt to answer the following research questions was made:

  1. Is the feeling of social exclusion result of the assessment of quality and dignity of life?

  2. Is the feeling of existence on the margin of life a result of the accompanying thoughts of respondents that no one needs them that they have no influence on anything and are not the subject of interest from local and central authorities?

  3. Is there a symptoms' interaction of social exclusion based on age, gender and assessments of quality and dignity of life?

    The quality of life is understood as spiritual and emotional subjective states, addressing the needs of existence and life in certain external conditions (access to health care, modern telecommunication infrastructure, public transport, social welfare, family, neighbours). The human environment constantly changes, as the same man does - primarily he is aging - which will exacerbate the symptoms of social exclusion. Even if the external environment does not change, quality of life can change, because one gets used to the conditions in which he lives, which may change independently of his will. Quality of life also depends on the environment's pressure.

    The study included the dignity of life, category introduced by J. Drewnowski to social studies, and continued by T. Slaby. The dignity of life is about not feeling states of a sense of injustice and social deprivation, which may result from the negative aspects of living in a changing economic and social realities. The dignity of life corresponds to the challenge in social studies of advisability of assessing the effects of the market economy, taking into account new consumer behaviours that build their social status. According to W. Ostasiewicz a basic premise of a new methodology for measuring social life is the identification of "ill-being" (state and causes of exclusion), which is determined by the material factors, living in specific socio-political conditions and in an increasingly degraded environment, aggressive market activity and own mental aptitude. The term is particularly appropriate to the situation of poverty, unemployment, loss of physical and mental health, unfavourable demographic changes, the condition of natural and artificial environment and social exclusion, which are, among others, in Poland a result of systemic changes, accession to the European Union, and the economic crisis. Z. Bauman says that "the social denial of the one's own dignity, impairment and humiliation", which today poor people are experiencing, is the most important factor characterising their current situation, sort of the equivalent of exploitation that played a critical role in previous eras and systems.

    The result of the third phase of studies is the development of the final report, which outlines the methodology works and their results after the implementation of the research and also two monographs (in Polish and English) were prepared. The analysis of the research results in the context of the answer to the question formulated as a research objective has been made and research hypotheses have been verified in the third phase.

    Analysis of the impact of differentiation degree of subjective assessments of the exclusion's degree and subjective judgments of the quality and dignity of life (categories determined by human needs) showed the impact of different reasons for being excluded.

    The monograph consists of five chapters.

    In Chapter I reference is made to the changes that have occurred in the rural areas in the years 1990-2014. It discusses trends of changes in rural areas in the twentieth and twenty-first century. Rural areas defined as areas located outside the administrative borders of towns occupy 93.1% of the Polish territory. Adopted study period is characterised by a large and diverse transformations in the countryside - the transformation of the system and the Polish accession to the European Union, which entailed costs and benefits. It is also a period oflong-term processes - decrease of rural area population due to general population disruralisation, disagrarisation and restratification that began before 1989, but gained momentum in the years in question, as confirmed by the submitted statistical data. This chapter also presents the perception changes by the aboriginal rural population aged 60+ in the light of the results of quantitative and qualitative research. Characteristically, the majority of respondents (42%) do not see the changes that have taken place, in their subjective opinions, their lives look like they used to be. Slightly less people think that their life is better, or rather better (41%), only 5% of respondents indicated the answer "definitely worse". According to the vast majority of respondents older people currently have no influence on anything, they just want to live peacefully, but without financial problems, and the family and neighbours are their support in the difficult moments.

    Chapter II is devoted to the considerations about the financial situation of people living in rural areas with special emphasis on seniors. Based on data from secondary sources, mainly from the Central Statistical Office, an analysis of the income situation of the population living in rural areas has been conducted. The structure of expenditure and level of equipment of their household in durable goods have been analysed. It shows an improvement in the average financial situation of households and rising level of durable goods. Also there were presented results of empirical research (quantitative), in which respondents were older, aboriginal villagers. Analysis of the socio-economic situation of households in this group of the population consisted of sources of means of support, the use of durable goods and selected services - health, culture and tourism. The main source of income of surveyed rural population was retirement pension, or disability pension (89%). Elders, aboriginal villagers benefited primarily from the medical services paid for by the National Health Fund (NFZ), and most often it was a visit to a primary care physician. The most common form of cultural participation was watching TV. A small percentage of respondents have gone on a trip recently. This chapter also contains a subjective assessment of material and housing conditions in relation to other people of a similar age living in the same village.

    The third chapter is devoted to social exclusion, which is presented in the light of theory and empirical research. Social exclusion is a concept which has its objective and subjective connotation. At the same time it is a universal phenomenon, and therefore occurs at all stages of social life and in all cultures, and in fact it corresponds in some way with the problem of inequality and social discrimination that characterised the societies regardless of time and space. The ideas of theorists, and at the same time ancestors of contemporary views on social exclusion have been discussed. In most studies education, lifelong learning are the most important factors for preventing exclusion both at the individual and society level. This chapter also shows the impact of the transformation of social exclusion, with particular emphasis on the rural population. Deficits regarded by residents were presented as symptoms of social exclusion.

    The fourth chapter discusses the problem of the quality and dignity of life in the context of the exclusion of elderly rural population in the light of the study results. Social exclusion is a multidimensional concept. In the empirical study of social exclusion of the aboriginal people of the Polish rural areas aged 60+ one used qualitative (i.e. soft), and quantitative (i.e. hard data) variables, resorted also to sociological photography. It gave a rise to the need for the use of statistical methods for the description of distributions of the answers, but also the attempt to use methods of multivariate analysis. It was assumed that the degree of social exclusion varies primarily due to the subjective evaluation of the quality and dignity of life, as a result of living in certain conditions that affect the degree of satisfaction of needs shaping the quality of life. The search for determinants was held through the one-way and two-way variance analysis in order to answer the question of whether the selected variables potentially differentiating assessments of social exclusion may be the elements of the set of diagnosing variables, and thus a tool of social policy. The analysis of interdependence based on the two- dimensional distributions (so-called 'crosswords'), which allowed to numerically assess the strength of dependencies of the determinants of social marginalisation and logistic regression model, in which marginalisation as the dependent variable took the form of a binary variable, has been used. Multivariate analysis was preceded by a description of the structure of the distribution of answers to questions that have been selected as characterising the situation of the respondents in relation to their quality and dignity of life, and thus determining the state of social exclusion of aboriginal people aged 60+ from rural areas.

    In the fifth chapter, reference is made to the policy on older people in the European Union and in Poland. The aging population has become a problem of Europe, including the European Union, and thus also Poland. The European

    Union has repeatedly emphasised that the elderly have the right to a dignified and independent life, which has been expressed in numerous documents. In 2010, the European Parliament adopted a Resolution entitled "Demographic challenge and solidarity between generations", which calls on Member States to make the elderly active as one of the priorities for the coming years, and 2012 was the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations. Thus one has created the opportunity to pay more attention to the elderly, the need to promote solidarity, cooperation and understanding between generations and, promote the participation of young people and older people in joint initiatives. The senior policy is getting more and more attention in Poland pointing to the causes and consequences. The aim of the senior policy in Poland is to support and provide opportunities for active healthy aging and opportunities for continued autonomous, independent and fulfilled life, even when some functional limitations are present. This chapter also highlights local policy for the elderly in the rural areas. After P. Bledowski one highlighted and discussed areas that determine the effectiveness of measures implemented in relation to the elderly. These are firstly the correct and regularly updated diagnosis of the situation and the needs of the older generation, secondly monitoring of activities undertaken by various actors at national and local level and, thirdly rational management of public funds, allocated for the implementation of these activities. The results of quantitative research can provide information about the situation and needs of the older generation the residents of studied provinces.

    Categories crucial for the undertaken research issue, such as quality of life, dignity of life, and social exclusion are complex concepts, and research on them belongs to fundamental research problems in economic sciences and the social sciences in general. Obtained research results, according to the authors, will affect not only the development of science, but also the development of society in the context of the blurring of social inequality. This study is considered as a contribution to further investigations and research.

    The authors hope that the undertaken issue will be of interest to a wide circle of readers - students, researchers, business practitioners, and representatives of social policy for whom the social exclusion is an interesting issue and research area.

     

 

 

Preface

Chapter I. The Changes Taking Place in the Polish Countryside in the Years

1990-2014 and Their Perception by Older, Aboriginal People

Introduction

1.1. Directions of Changes in the Rural Areas in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Century

1.2. Perception of Changes by Aboriginal Rural Population Aged 60+ (Research Results)

Conclusions

Chapter II. The Financial Situation of Elderly Living in the Rural Areas in Poland

Introduction

2.1. Financial Situation of Elderly Living in the Rural Areas in the Light of Secondary Data

2.2. Economic and Social Situation in the Households of Elderly, Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Rural Areas (Empirical Research)

Conclusions

Chapter III. The Social Exclusion - Theoretical and Empirical Approach

Introduction

3.1. Social Exclusion - Definition and Conditions

3.2. Fighting Against Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Social Policy of Selected Countries

3.3. Age as a Risk Factor of Social Exclusion

3.4. The Influence of the Transformation on the Phenomenon of Social Exclusion With Particular Emphasis on Rural Residents

3.5. Deficits Felt by Residents as Symptoms of Social Exclusion

3.6. The Scope and Conditions of Social Exclusion With Particular Attention to Discrimination

3.7. Types of Social Exclusion

Conclusions

 

Chapter IV. The Determinants of Social Exclusion of Aboriginal Rural Population Aged 60+

Introduction

4.1. Respondents' Characteristics

4.2. Analysis of the Interdependencies of Social Exclusion and Characteristics of the Respondent

Conclusions

Chapter V. The Policy Towards Elderly in the European Union and in Poland

Introduction

5.1. Elderly as a Subject of Interest of the European Union's Policy

5.2. Place of the Elderly in the Policy of Poland

5.3. Policy Towards Elderly Living in Rural Areas

Conclusions

Bibliography

 

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