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MANUFACTURER - RETAILER RELATIONSHIPS The context of business models
MANUFACTURER - RETAILER RELATIONSHIPS The context of business models

 

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The issue of manufacturer - retailer relationships has been discussed since the end of the 70s of the previous century. Relations between organisations are presented in the literature from the perspective of various theoretical concepts and the authors of publications use various definitions and classifications thereof (among others: Thomas 1992; Osarenkhoe 2010; Bititci et al. 2004; Bengtsson & Kock 2000; Easton & Araujo 1992). In accordance with the concepts of PARTS and value chain (Brandenburger&Nalebuff 1995), coopetitive relations between market "players" have a character of a non-zero-positive-sum game, which results in both parties involved generating added value. In compliance with the resource-based approach (Clarke-Hill, Li & Davis 2003; Hunt 1997, Harrison et al. 2001; Peteraf 1993; Romanowska 2002; Goerzen 2007; Lavie 2006; Stankiewicz 2005; Godziszewski 2001, Prahalad & Hamel 1999), organisations are able to establish a relatively permanent competitive advantage if they can offer value to customers that is comparable to the value offered by competitors with lower costs of establishment thereof or, if they can offer bigger value to customers with comparable costs. The competitive advantage depends on the method of using available assets (Henderson & Cockburn 1994; Boultellier et al. 2000). Enterprises suffer a deficit in strategic assets due to a limited and frequently blocked by competitors access thereto or a lack of the possibility to independently establish such an access due to very high costs. An alternative would consist in establishing cooperation with organisations that dispose of complementary assets or with which such assets can be created (Gomes- Casseres 1996; Boyce 2001; Sroka 2012; Doz & Hamel 1998; Cygler et al. 2013; ed. Sznajder 2012; Łobejko 2010; Czakon 2012; Gorynia & Jankowska 2008).

In the literature devoted to inter-organisational relations, horizontal relationships have been predominantly studied while only some publications discussed vertical relations, focusing on the relations between manufacturers and suppliers, not buyers (among others: Sobrero & Toulan 2000; Chen & Hall 2007; Luo 2004). The current status of knowledge on manufacturer - retailer relations should, therefore, be considered as rudimentary. Many authors have concentrated on the essence of these relations (Noordewier et al. 1990), consequences thereof (Anderson & Narus 1990), relationship marketing (Izquierdo & Cillan 2004), the cooperation of local manufacturers with intemational trading networks (Kovacs 1984) and with large retailers (Kłosiewicz-Górecka 2010). It was stated that vertical cooperation relations favour achieving better results as compared to the competition (Palmatier et al. 2006). These relations, including the cooperation between retailers and suppliers, can concern various processes in the value chain, such as the ones oriented towards customers, innovation and supply chain (Zentes et al. 2004). A lot of studies concentrated on the analysis of the fast-moving consumer goods market and there are few publications concerning the durable consumer goods market.

Relations between manufacturers and retailers can be also considered in the context of business models' changes and transformation of both retailers and manufacturers roles in the value chain (Bloom&Perry 2001; Amato&Amato 2008). Determinants of these changes comprise, among others: an increase in retail sale, growing competition that requires searching for new methods of competing, consolidation of retailers and establishment of international capital groups, high sale profitability of retailer brands (Gomez-Arias & Bello-Acebron 2008), an increase in the variety of distribution channels (Seiders et al. 2000; Friedman 2002), growing sale of products under retailer brands (Soberman & Parker 2006) as well as a development of systems supporting customer relationships' management (Corsten & Kumar 2005) and IT technologies. The IT technologies' development (Sznajder 2013) entailed the disintermediation and re-intermediation of distribution channels. Also, new types of retailers have appeared. Traditional boundaries between manufacturers and retailers disappear and those parties not only cooperate in the distribution channel but also compete for the same buyers (Anderson et al. 1997). At the beginning, the role of retailers consisted in providing customers with the utility of space and time, whereas, the execution of the marketing function was left to manufacturers (ed. Witek-Hajduk 2011). Retailers have been overtaking marketing functions and establishing own brands (Fumero & Angeles 2006). Business models have been changing as well. Manufacturers implement the following business models: Market Player, Traditionalist or Contractor, whereas retailers: Distributor or Integrator (Dudzik & Witek-Hajduk 2007). However, a deficit of publications devoted to the relations between manufacturers and retailers in the context of the business models is visible. In the previous studies a lot of attention has been paid to the competition between manufacturers' brands and retailers' brands (among others: Petty 2012; Hoch et al. 2002; Chimhundu 2011), manufacturers' reaction to the competition with retailers' brands (Verhoef et al. 2000), a comparison of the strategies of manufacturers' and retailers' brands (Bontemms et al. 1999; Steiner 2004; Bonano & Rigoberto 2005; Ailawadi & Bari 2004; Hultman et al. 2008), factors favouring the development of retailers' brands and conditioning their market share (Dahr & Hoch 1997). Manufacturers and retailers have been classified into separate strategic groups (Porter 1976). A decreasing difference in the level of the quality of products labelled with manufacturers' brands and retailers' brands favored changes in manufacturers' strategy towards retailers (Verhoef et al. 2002), among others, in the scope of producing goods ordered by retailers. Both motives of this cooperation (Quelch & Harding 1996; Gomez & Benito 2008; Gomez- Arias & Bello-Acebron 2010) as well as factors determining benefits obtained by manufacturers from producing goods under a retailer's brand have been studied. According to Kumar and Steekamp (2010), manufacturer - retailer relationships do not improve after the commencement of the contract production but they can cause an increase in the dependency on retailers.

Being aware of the incompleteness of knowledge on the manufacturer - retailer relationships on the market of durable consumer goods, a team of researchers under the guidance of Marzanna K. Witek-Hajduk made an attempt to fil! in this gap in the scope of both concept and research. Therefore, the book fits into the newest studies. The study is aimed at developing knowledge on manufacturer - retailer relationships in the context of business models and in conditions of IT technologies' development.

The authors set the following cognitive and methodological objectives of the book:

  1. A review and critical analysis as well as the synthesis of theoretical concepts regarding manufacturer - retailer relationships and factors determining thereof as well as a systematisation both of concepts and characteristics of those relationships with regard to the complexity of this phenomenon (a cognitive objective).

  2. Establishment of a model of manufacturer - retailer relationships based on a review of the literature, taking into consideration the content of the relation, the context of factors determining thereof as well as the strategic implications of those relationships (a methodological objective).

  3. Identification and characteristics of the relationships, including cooperation between manufacturers and retailers on the market of durable consumer goods, the context thereof as well as individual and joint benefits obtained from the cooperation by the engaged parties.

    While achieving the aforementioned objectives, the authors applied various research methods. First, a review, a critical analysis and synthesis of the literature on the inter-organizational relations, including manufacturer - retailer relationships, growth strategy, cooperation and competition. Qualitative and quantitative research results were used. Four case studies are presented herein based on the in-depth interviews with managers of two manufacturers of durable consumer goods and two retailers trading those goods. Furthermore, selected results of the quantitative research conducted with the use of the CATI method on the sample of medium and large manufacturers of durable consumer goods operating in Poland and large and medium retailers trading those products are presented.

    The book consists of an introduction, five chapters and a summary. The first three chapters constitute a theoretic part, whereas the two last chapters include selected results of the empirical research.

    The first chapter is devoted to the conceptual description of inter-organisational relations. Relationships between organisations are characterised through the prism of many theoretical concepts, among which the leading ones include the transaction costs theory, game theory and the resource-based approach. Organisations can establish a wide range of relations and their variety predominantly results from environmental conditions, the impact of competition and cooperation, the number of engaged parties, the power of relationships and the characteristics of the actors themselves.

    The second chapter comprises a critical review, an analysis and synthesis of the literature concerning manufacturer - retailer relationships. Parties to the manufacturer - retailer relationships are characterised with a consideration of the context of business models of manufacturers and retailers. The terminology and typology used in the literature as well as various approaches to the issue of manufacturer - retailer relationships are presented. Also, the decisions regarding manufacturer - retailer relationships as an element of strategies of the parties to these relations are included. Furthermore, the literature regarding the types of manufacturer - retailer relationships, i.e.: competition, cooperation, coopetition and coexistence indicated herein are reviewed.

    The third chapter presents determinants of manufacturer - retailer relationships. Among them, particularly significant are the changes in consumers' behaviours to a great extent resulting from the development of new information and communication technologies. Furthermore, new legal Solutions favouring the above have been presented. The multi-channel marketing development is also underlined.

    In the fourth chapter, relations between manufacturers and retailers operating on the market of durable consumer goods are characterised both from the perspective of manufacturers and retailers, based on the results of the quantitative research and in the context of business models of the parties to the relation. In particular, the opinions of managers of the studied manufacturers and retailers are presented regarding the balance of power between them, the character (competition vs. cooperation) and the forms of the relations, and individual and joint benefits obtained from the cooperation.

    The fifth chapter is devoted to the presentation of four case studies of relationships between manufacturers of durable consumer goods and retailers trading those goods from the perspective of two manufacturers (Modecom S.A. - a manufacturer of computer equipment and accessories and Polskie Fabryki Porcelany "Ćmielów" i "Chodzież" S.A.- a manufacturer of porcelain tableware) and two retailers (Castorama Polska sp. z o. o. - a retailer trading construction materials and home and garden equipment as well as SMYK Sp. z o. o. - a retailer trading toys, clothes and accessories for children).

    The book is consistent with the stream of the discussion conducted by scientists and managers worldwide regarding the possibility to establish a competitive advantage of both manufacturers and retailers with a consideration of the variety of relations between the parties. The presented work is one of the first of this type in Poland and one of few in the world. The authors hope that the contents hereof become an inspiration for further study on inter-organisational relations with a particular consideration of the characteristics of contacts between manufacturers and retailers and the conclusions from the presented research prove to be useful in economic practice.

    Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

     

 

[[[separator]]]

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

Introduction

 

Joanna Cygler

Chapter 1. Inter-organizational relations - an outline of theoretical concepts

Introduction

1.1. Relations in theoretical concepts

1.2. Prerequisites for establishing inter-organisational relations

1.3. Types of the inter-organisational relations

1.4. Types of relationships - the impact of competition and cooperation

1.5. Bilateral and multilateral inter-organisational relations

1.6. Strong and weak inter-organisational relations

1.7. Diversity of relationships due to the characteristics of the parties

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

Chapter 2. Manufacturer - retailer relationships

Introduction

2.1. Characteristics of the parties to a manufacturer - retailer relationship

Retailers as a party to relationships with manufacturers

2.2. Manufacturers' business models vs. retailers' business models

2.3. Manufacturer - retailer relationships as a type of inter-organisational relations

2.4. Manufacturer - retailer relationships as an element of the strategy of the parties to the relation

2.5. Typology and characteristics of manufacturer - retailer relationships

2.6. Manufacturer - retailer competition

2.7. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation

2.8. Manufacturer - retailer coopetition

2.9. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation and coopetition versus manufacturer brand - retailer brand alliances

2.10. The scope of the manufacturer - retailer cooperation and coopetition

2.10.1. Cooperation in the promotional activities

2.10.2. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation in manufacturing products exclusively for the retailer or under retailer's own brands

2.10.3. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation/coopetition in planning and satisfying customers' needs, including the category management

2.10.4. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation in the CSR and sustainable development

2.11. Manufacturer - retailer coexistence

Summary

 

Andrzej Sznajder

Chapter 3. Determinants of manufacturer - retailer relationships

Introduction

3.1. Changes in customers' market behaviours as a determinant of changes in distribution systems - digital consumers

3.2. Legal conditions influencing the retail trade development

3.3. Changes in distribution channels as a result of the Internet and mobile technologies development

3.4. Multi-channel marketing concept

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Tomasz Napiórkowski,

Joanna Cygler, Andrzej Sznajder

Chapter 4. Manufacturer - retailer relationships in the Polish durable consumer

goods: market - the perspective of retailers and manufacturers

Introduction

4.1. Manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods market - the perspective of retailers

4.2. Relationships between durable consumer goods' manufacturers and retailers - the perspective of manufacturers

4.3. The importance of the cooperative and competitive dimensions of the

retailer - key manufacturer relationships and the balance of power, scope of

cooperation and benefits from the cooperation

4.4. The importance of the cooperative and competitive dimensions of the

manufacturer - key retailer relationships and the balance of power, the area of cooperation and benefits obtained from the cooperation

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Anna Napiórkowska

Chapter 5. Case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods' market

Introduction

5.1. Case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods' market - the perspective of manufacturers

5.1.1. The case study of the relationship between MODECOM S. A. and retailers

5.1.2. The case study of the relationship between the manufacturer Polskie

Fabryki Porcelany "Ćmielów" i "Chodzież" S. A. and retailers

5.2. Selected case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable

consumer goods' market - the perspective of retailers

5.2.1. The case study of the relationships between the Castorama retail

network and manufacturers of durable consumer goods in the Polish market

5.2.2. The case study of the relationships between the retail network SMYK with manufacturers - its suppliers

Summary

 

Conclusions

 

Bibliography

 

List of tables

 

List of diagrams

 

List of pictures

 

Opis

Wydanie: I
Rok wydania: 2017
Wydawnictwo: Oficyna Wydawnicza
Oprawa: miękka
Format: B5
Liczba stron: 285

 

e-book do wypożyczenia lub zakupu na stronie:

https://www.ibuk.pl

 

Wstęp

 

The issue of manufacturer - retailer relationships has been discussed since the end of the 70s of the previous century. Relations between organisations are presented in the literature from the perspective of various theoretical concepts and the authors of publications use various definitions and classifications thereof (among others: Thomas 1992; Osarenkhoe 2010; Bititci et al. 2004; Bengtsson & Kock 2000; Easton & Araujo 1992). In accordance with the concepts of PARTS and value chain (Brandenburger&Nalebuff 1995), coopetitive relations between market "players" have a character of a non-zero-positive-sum game, which results in both parties involved generating added value. In compliance with the resource-based approach (Clarke-Hill, Li & Davis 2003; Hunt 1997, Harrison et al. 2001; Peteraf 1993; Romanowska 2002; Goerzen 2007; Lavie 2006; Stankiewicz 2005; Godziszewski 2001, Prahalad & Hamel 1999), organisations are able to establish a relatively permanent competitive advantage if they can offer value to customers that is comparable to the value offered by competitors with lower costs of establishment thereof or, if they can offer bigger value to customers with comparable costs. The competitive advantage depends on the method of using available assets (Henderson & Cockburn 1994; Boultellier et al. 2000). Enterprises suffer a deficit in strategic assets due to a limited and frequently blocked by competitors access thereto or a lack of the possibility to independently establish such an access due to very high costs. An alternative would consist in establishing cooperation with organisations that dispose of complementary assets or with which such assets can be created (Gomes- Casseres 1996; Boyce 2001; Sroka 2012; Doz & Hamel 1998; Cygler et al. 2013; ed. Sznajder 2012; Łobejko 2010; Czakon 2012; Gorynia & Jankowska 2008).

In the literature devoted to inter-organisational relations, horizontal relationships have been predominantly studied while only some publications discussed vertical relations, focusing on the relations between manufacturers and suppliers, not buyers (among others: Sobrero & Toulan 2000; Chen & Hall 2007; Luo 2004). The current status of knowledge on manufacturer - retailer relations should, therefore, be considered as rudimentary. Many authors have concentrated on the essence of these relations (Noordewier et al. 1990), consequences thereof (Anderson & Narus 1990), relationship marketing (Izquierdo & Cillan 2004), the cooperation of local manufacturers with intemational trading networks (Kovacs 1984) and with large retailers (Kłosiewicz-Górecka 2010). It was stated that vertical cooperation relations favour achieving better results as compared to the competition (Palmatier et al. 2006). These relations, including the cooperation between retailers and suppliers, can concern various processes in the value chain, such as the ones oriented towards customers, innovation and supply chain (Zentes et al. 2004). A lot of studies concentrated on the analysis of the fast-moving consumer goods market and there are few publications concerning the durable consumer goods market.

Relations between manufacturers and retailers can be also considered in the context of business models' changes and transformation of both retailers and manufacturers roles in the value chain (Bloom&Perry 2001; Amato&Amato 2008). Determinants of these changes comprise, among others: an increase in retail sale, growing competition that requires searching for new methods of competing, consolidation of retailers and establishment of international capital groups, high sale profitability of retailer brands (Gomez-Arias & Bello-Acebron 2008), an increase in the variety of distribution channels (Seiders et al. 2000; Friedman 2002), growing sale of products under retailer brands (Soberman & Parker 2006) as well as a development of systems supporting customer relationships' management (Corsten & Kumar 2005) and IT technologies. The IT technologies' development (Sznajder 2013) entailed the disintermediation and re-intermediation of distribution channels. Also, new types of retailers have appeared. Traditional boundaries between manufacturers and retailers disappear and those parties not only cooperate in the distribution channel but also compete for the same buyers (Anderson et al. 1997). At the beginning, the role of retailers consisted in providing customers with the utility of space and time, whereas, the execution of the marketing function was left to manufacturers (ed. Witek-Hajduk 2011). Retailers have been overtaking marketing functions and establishing own brands (Fumero & Angeles 2006). Business models have been changing as well. Manufacturers implement the following business models: Market Player, Traditionalist or Contractor, whereas retailers: Distributor or Integrator (Dudzik & Witek-Hajduk 2007). However, a deficit of publications devoted to the relations between manufacturers and retailers in the context of the business models is visible. In the previous studies a lot of attention has been paid to the competition between manufacturers' brands and retailers' brands (among others: Petty 2012; Hoch et al. 2002; Chimhundu 2011), manufacturers' reaction to the competition with retailers' brands (Verhoef et al. 2000), a comparison of the strategies of manufacturers' and retailers' brands (Bontemms et al. 1999; Steiner 2004; Bonano & Rigoberto 2005; Ailawadi & Bari 2004; Hultman et al. 2008), factors favouring the development of retailers' brands and conditioning their market share (Dahr & Hoch 1997). Manufacturers and retailers have been classified into separate strategic groups (Porter 1976). A decreasing difference in the level of the quality of products labelled with manufacturers' brands and retailers' brands favored changes in manufacturers' strategy towards retailers (Verhoef et al. 2002), among others, in the scope of producing goods ordered by retailers. Both motives of this cooperation (Quelch & Harding 1996; Gomez & Benito 2008; Gomez- Arias & Bello-Acebron 2010) as well as factors determining benefits obtained by manufacturers from producing goods under a retailer's brand have been studied. According to Kumar and Steekamp (2010), manufacturer - retailer relationships do not improve after the commencement of the contract production but they can cause an increase in the dependency on retailers.

Being aware of the incompleteness of knowledge on the manufacturer - retailer relationships on the market of durable consumer goods, a team of researchers under the guidance of Marzanna K. Witek-Hajduk made an attempt to fil! in this gap in the scope of both concept and research. Therefore, the book fits into the newest studies. The study is aimed at developing knowledge on manufacturer - retailer relationships in the context of business models and in conditions of IT technologies' development.

The authors set the following cognitive and methodological objectives of the book:

  1. A review and critical analysis as well as the synthesis of theoretical concepts regarding manufacturer - retailer relationships and factors determining thereof as well as a systematisation both of concepts and characteristics of those relationships with regard to the complexity of this phenomenon (a cognitive objective).

  2. Establishment of a model of manufacturer - retailer relationships based on a review of the literature, taking into consideration the content of the relation, the context of factors determining thereof as well as the strategic implications of those relationships (a methodological objective).

  3. Identification and characteristics of the relationships, including cooperation between manufacturers and retailers on the market of durable consumer goods, the context thereof as well as individual and joint benefits obtained from the cooperation by the engaged parties.

    While achieving the aforementioned objectives, the authors applied various research methods. First, a review, a critical analysis and synthesis of the literature on the inter-organizational relations, including manufacturer - retailer relationships, growth strategy, cooperation and competition. Qualitative and quantitative research results were used. Four case studies are presented herein based on the in-depth interviews with managers of two manufacturers of durable consumer goods and two retailers trading those goods. Furthermore, selected results of the quantitative research conducted with the use of the CATI method on the sample of medium and large manufacturers of durable consumer goods operating in Poland and large and medium retailers trading those products are presented.

    The book consists of an introduction, five chapters and a summary. The first three chapters constitute a theoretic part, whereas the two last chapters include selected results of the empirical research.

    The first chapter is devoted to the conceptual description of inter-organisational relations. Relationships between organisations are characterised through the prism of many theoretical concepts, among which the leading ones include the transaction costs theory, game theory and the resource-based approach. Organisations can establish a wide range of relations and their variety predominantly results from environmental conditions, the impact of competition and cooperation, the number of engaged parties, the power of relationships and the characteristics of the actors themselves.

    The second chapter comprises a critical review, an analysis and synthesis of the literature concerning manufacturer - retailer relationships. Parties to the manufacturer - retailer relationships are characterised with a consideration of the context of business models of manufacturers and retailers. The terminology and typology used in the literature as well as various approaches to the issue of manufacturer - retailer relationships are presented. Also, the decisions regarding manufacturer - retailer relationships as an element of strategies of the parties to these relations are included. Furthermore, the literature regarding the types of manufacturer - retailer relationships, i.e.: competition, cooperation, coopetition and coexistence indicated herein are reviewed.

    The third chapter presents determinants of manufacturer - retailer relationships. Among them, particularly significant are the changes in consumers' behaviours to a great extent resulting from the development of new information and communication technologies. Furthermore, new legal Solutions favouring the above have been presented. The multi-channel marketing development is also underlined.

    In the fourth chapter, relations between manufacturers and retailers operating on the market of durable consumer goods are characterised both from the perspective of manufacturers and retailers, based on the results of the quantitative research and in the context of business models of the parties to the relation. In particular, the opinions of managers of the studied manufacturers and retailers are presented regarding the balance of power between them, the character (competition vs. cooperation) and the forms of the relations, and individual and joint benefits obtained from the cooperation.

    The fifth chapter is devoted to the presentation of four case studies of relationships between manufacturers of durable consumer goods and retailers trading those goods from the perspective of two manufacturers (Modecom S.A. - a manufacturer of computer equipment and accessories and Polskie Fabryki Porcelany "Ćmielów" i "Chodzież" S.A.- a manufacturer of porcelain tableware) and two retailers (Castorama Polska sp. z o. o. - a retailer trading construction materials and home and garden equipment as well as SMYK Sp. z o. o. - a retailer trading toys, clothes and accessories for children).

    The book is consistent with the stream of the discussion conducted by scientists and managers worldwide regarding the possibility to establish a competitive advantage of both manufacturers and retailers with a consideration of the variety of relations between the parties. The presented work is one of the first of this type in Poland and one of few in the world. The authors hope that the contents hereof become an inspiration for further study on inter-organisational relations with a particular consideration of the characteristics of contacts between manufacturers and retailers and the conclusions from the presented research prove to be useful in economic practice.

    Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

     

 

Spis treści

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

Introduction

 

Joanna Cygler

Chapter 1. Inter-organizational relations - an outline of theoretical concepts

Introduction

1.1. Relations in theoretical concepts

1.2. Prerequisites for establishing inter-organisational relations

1.3. Types of the inter-organisational relations

1.4. Types of relationships - the impact of competition and cooperation

1.5. Bilateral and multilateral inter-organisational relations

1.6. Strong and weak inter-organisational relations

1.7. Diversity of relationships due to the characteristics of the parties

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

Chapter 2. Manufacturer - retailer relationships

Introduction

2.1. Characteristics of the parties to a manufacturer - retailer relationship

Retailers as a party to relationships with manufacturers

2.2. Manufacturers' business models vs. retailers' business models

2.3. Manufacturer - retailer relationships as a type of inter-organisational relations

2.4. Manufacturer - retailer relationships as an element of the strategy of the parties to the relation

2.5. Typology and characteristics of manufacturer - retailer relationships

2.6. Manufacturer - retailer competition

2.7. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation

2.8. Manufacturer - retailer coopetition

2.9. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation and coopetition versus manufacturer brand - retailer brand alliances

2.10. The scope of the manufacturer - retailer cooperation and coopetition

2.10.1. Cooperation in the promotional activities

2.10.2. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation in manufacturing products exclusively for the retailer or under retailer's own brands

2.10.3. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation/coopetition in planning and satisfying customers' needs, including the category management

2.10.4. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation in the CSR and sustainable development

2.11. Manufacturer - retailer coexistence

Summary

 

Andrzej Sznajder

Chapter 3. Determinants of manufacturer - retailer relationships

Introduction

3.1. Changes in customers' market behaviours as a determinant of changes in distribution systems - digital consumers

3.2. Legal conditions influencing the retail trade development

3.3. Changes in distribution channels as a result of the Internet and mobile technologies development

3.4. Multi-channel marketing concept

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Tomasz Napiórkowski,

Joanna Cygler, Andrzej Sznajder

Chapter 4. Manufacturer - retailer relationships in the Polish durable consumer

goods: market - the perspective of retailers and manufacturers

Introduction

4.1. Manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods market - the perspective of retailers

4.2. Relationships between durable consumer goods' manufacturers and retailers - the perspective of manufacturers

4.3. The importance of the cooperative and competitive dimensions of the

retailer - key manufacturer relationships and the balance of power, scope of

cooperation and benefits from the cooperation

4.4. The importance of the cooperative and competitive dimensions of the

manufacturer - key retailer relationships and the balance of power, the area of cooperation and benefits obtained from the cooperation

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Anna Napiórkowska

Chapter 5. Case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods' market

Introduction

5.1. Case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods' market - the perspective of manufacturers

5.1.1. The case study of the relationship between MODECOM S. A. and retailers

5.1.2. The case study of the relationship between the manufacturer Polskie

Fabryki Porcelany "Ćmielów" i "Chodzież" S. A. and retailers

5.2. Selected case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable

consumer goods' market - the perspective of retailers

5.2.1. The case study of the relationships between the Castorama retail

network and manufacturers of durable consumer goods in the Polish market

5.2.2. The case study of the relationships between the retail network SMYK with manufacturers - its suppliers

Summary

 

Conclusions

 

Bibliography

 

List of tables

 

List of diagrams

 

List of pictures

 

Opinie

Twoja ocena:
Wydanie: I
Rok wydania: 2017
Wydawnictwo: Oficyna Wydawnicza
Oprawa: miękka
Format: B5
Liczba stron: 285

 

e-book do wypożyczenia lub zakupu na stronie:

https://www.ibuk.pl

 

 

The issue of manufacturer - retailer relationships has been discussed since the end of the 70s of the previous century. Relations between organisations are presented in the literature from the perspective of various theoretical concepts and the authors of publications use various definitions and classifications thereof (among others: Thomas 1992; Osarenkhoe 2010; Bititci et al. 2004; Bengtsson & Kock 2000; Easton & Araujo 1992). In accordance with the concepts of PARTS and value chain (Brandenburger&Nalebuff 1995), coopetitive relations between market "players" have a character of a non-zero-positive-sum game, which results in both parties involved generating added value. In compliance with the resource-based approach (Clarke-Hill, Li & Davis 2003; Hunt 1997, Harrison et al. 2001; Peteraf 1993; Romanowska 2002; Goerzen 2007; Lavie 2006; Stankiewicz 2005; Godziszewski 2001, Prahalad & Hamel 1999), organisations are able to establish a relatively permanent competitive advantage if they can offer value to customers that is comparable to the value offered by competitors with lower costs of establishment thereof or, if they can offer bigger value to customers with comparable costs. The competitive advantage depends on the method of using available assets (Henderson & Cockburn 1994; Boultellier et al. 2000). Enterprises suffer a deficit in strategic assets due to a limited and frequently blocked by competitors access thereto or a lack of the possibility to independently establish such an access due to very high costs. An alternative would consist in establishing cooperation with organisations that dispose of complementary assets or with which such assets can be created (Gomes- Casseres 1996; Boyce 2001; Sroka 2012; Doz & Hamel 1998; Cygler et al. 2013; ed. Sznajder 2012; Łobejko 2010; Czakon 2012; Gorynia & Jankowska 2008).

In the literature devoted to inter-organisational relations, horizontal relationships have been predominantly studied while only some publications discussed vertical relations, focusing on the relations between manufacturers and suppliers, not buyers (among others: Sobrero & Toulan 2000; Chen & Hall 2007; Luo 2004). The current status of knowledge on manufacturer - retailer relations should, therefore, be considered as rudimentary. Many authors have concentrated on the essence of these relations (Noordewier et al. 1990), consequences thereof (Anderson & Narus 1990), relationship marketing (Izquierdo & Cillan 2004), the cooperation of local manufacturers with intemational trading networks (Kovacs 1984) and with large retailers (Kłosiewicz-Górecka 2010). It was stated that vertical cooperation relations favour achieving better results as compared to the competition (Palmatier et al. 2006). These relations, including the cooperation between retailers and suppliers, can concern various processes in the value chain, such as the ones oriented towards customers, innovation and supply chain (Zentes et al. 2004). A lot of studies concentrated on the analysis of the fast-moving consumer goods market and there are few publications concerning the durable consumer goods market.

Relations between manufacturers and retailers can be also considered in the context of business models' changes and transformation of both retailers and manufacturers roles in the value chain (Bloom&Perry 2001; Amato&Amato 2008). Determinants of these changes comprise, among others: an increase in retail sale, growing competition that requires searching for new methods of competing, consolidation of retailers and establishment of international capital groups, high sale profitability of retailer brands (Gomez-Arias & Bello-Acebron 2008), an increase in the variety of distribution channels (Seiders et al. 2000; Friedman 2002), growing sale of products under retailer brands (Soberman & Parker 2006) as well as a development of systems supporting customer relationships' management (Corsten & Kumar 2005) and IT technologies. The IT technologies' development (Sznajder 2013) entailed the disintermediation and re-intermediation of distribution channels. Also, new types of retailers have appeared. Traditional boundaries between manufacturers and retailers disappear and those parties not only cooperate in the distribution channel but also compete for the same buyers (Anderson et al. 1997). At the beginning, the role of retailers consisted in providing customers with the utility of space and time, whereas, the execution of the marketing function was left to manufacturers (ed. Witek-Hajduk 2011). Retailers have been overtaking marketing functions and establishing own brands (Fumero & Angeles 2006). Business models have been changing as well. Manufacturers implement the following business models: Market Player, Traditionalist or Contractor, whereas retailers: Distributor or Integrator (Dudzik & Witek-Hajduk 2007). However, a deficit of publications devoted to the relations between manufacturers and retailers in the context of the business models is visible. In the previous studies a lot of attention has been paid to the competition between manufacturers' brands and retailers' brands (among others: Petty 2012; Hoch et al. 2002; Chimhundu 2011), manufacturers' reaction to the competition with retailers' brands (Verhoef et al. 2000), a comparison of the strategies of manufacturers' and retailers' brands (Bontemms et al. 1999; Steiner 2004; Bonano & Rigoberto 2005; Ailawadi & Bari 2004; Hultman et al. 2008), factors favouring the development of retailers' brands and conditioning their market share (Dahr & Hoch 1997). Manufacturers and retailers have been classified into separate strategic groups (Porter 1976). A decreasing difference in the level of the quality of products labelled with manufacturers' brands and retailers' brands favored changes in manufacturers' strategy towards retailers (Verhoef et al. 2002), among others, in the scope of producing goods ordered by retailers. Both motives of this cooperation (Quelch & Harding 1996; Gomez & Benito 2008; Gomez- Arias & Bello-Acebron 2010) as well as factors determining benefits obtained by manufacturers from producing goods under a retailer's brand have been studied. According to Kumar and Steekamp (2010), manufacturer - retailer relationships do not improve after the commencement of the contract production but they can cause an increase in the dependency on retailers.

Being aware of the incompleteness of knowledge on the manufacturer - retailer relationships on the market of durable consumer goods, a team of researchers under the guidance of Marzanna K. Witek-Hajduk made an attempt to fil! in this gap in the scope of both concept and research. Therefore, the book fits into the newest studies. The study is aimed at developing knowledge on manufacturer - retailer relationships in the context of business models and in conditions of IT technologies' development.

The authors set the following cognitive and methodological objectives of the book:

  1. A review and critical analysis as well as the synthesis of theoretical concepts regarding manufacturer - retailer relationships and factors determining thereof as well as a systematisation both of concepts and characteristics of those relationships with regard to the complexity of this phenomenon (a cognitive objective).

  2. Establishment of a model of manufacturer - retailer relationships based on a review of the literature, taking into consideration the content of the relation, the context of factors determining thereof as well as the strategic implications of those relationships (a methodological objective).

  3. Identification and characteristics of the relationships, including cooperation between manufacturers and retailers on the market of durable consumer goods, the context thereof as well as individual and joint benefits obtained from the cooperation by the engaged parties.

    While achieving the aforementioned objectives, the authors applied various research methods. First, a review, a critical analysis and synthesis of the literature on the inter-organizational relations, including manufacturer - retailer relationships, growth strategy, cooperation and competition. Qualitative and quantitative research results were used. Four case studies are presented herein based on the in-depth interviews with managers of two manufacturers of durable consumer goods and two retailers trading those goods. Furthermore, selected results of the quantitative research conducted with the use of the CATI method on the sample of medium and large manufacturers of durable consumer goods operating in Poland and large and medium retailers trading those products are presented.

    The book consists of an introduction, five chapters and a summary. The first three chapters constitute a theoretic part, whereas the two last chapters include selected results of the empirical research.

    The first chapter is devoted to the conceptual description of inter-organisational relations. Relationships between organisations are characterised through the prism of many theoretical concepts, among which the leading ones include the transaction costs theory, game theory and the resource-based approach. Organisations can establish a wide range of relations and their variety predominantly results from environmental conditions, the impact of competition and cooperation, the number of engaged parties, the power of relationships and the characteristics of the actors themselves.

    The second chapter comprises a critical review, an analysis and synthesis of the literature concerning manufacturer - retailer relationships. Parties to the manufacturer - retailer relationships are characterised with a consideration of the context of business models of manufacturers and retailers. The terminology and typology used in the literature as well as various approaches to the issue of manufacturer - retailer relationships are presented. Also, the decisions regarding manufacturer - retailer relationships as an element of strategies of the parties to these relations are included. Furthermore, the literature regarding the types of manufacturer - retailer relationships, i.e.: competition, cooperation, coopetition and coexistence indicated herein are reviewed.

    The third chapter presents determinants of manufacturer - retailer relationships. Among them, particularly significant are the changes in consumers' behaviours to a great extent resulting from the development of new information and communication technologies. Furthermore, new legal Solutions favouring the above have been presented. The multi-channel marketing development is also underlined.

    In the fourth chapter, relations between manufacturers and retailers operating on the market of durable consumer goods are characterised both from the perspective of manufacturers and retailers, based on the results of the quantitative research and in the context of business models of the parties to the relation. In particular, the opinions of managers of the studied manufacturers and retailers are presented regarding the balance of power between them, the character (competition vs. cooperation) and the forms of the relations, and individual and joint benefits obtained from the cooperation.

    The fifth chapter is devoted to the presentation of four case studies of relationships between manufacturers of durable consumer goods and retailers trading those goods from the perspective of two manufacturers (Modecom S.A. - a manufacturer of computer equipment and accessories and Polskie Fabryki Porcelany "Ćmielów" i "Chodzież" S.A.- a manufacturer of porcelain tableware) and two retailers (Castorama Polska sp. z o. o. - a retailer trading construction materials and home and garden equipment as well as SMYK Sp. z o. o. - a retailer trading toys, clothes and accessories for children).

    The book is consistent with the stream of the discussion conducted by scientists and managers worldwide regarding the possibility to establish a competitive advantage of both manufacturers and retailers with a consideration of the variety of relations between the parties. The presented work is one of the first of this type in Poland and one of few in the world. The authors hope that the contents hereof become an inspiration for further study on inter-organisational relations with a particular consideration of the characteristics of contacts between manufacturers and retailers and the conclusions from the presented research prove to be useful in economic practice.

    Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

     

 

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

Introduction

 

Joanna Cygler

Chapter 1. Inter-organizational relations - an outline of theoretical concepts

Introduction

1.1. Relations in theoretical concepts

1.2. Prerequisites for establishing inter-organisational relations

1.3. Types of the inter-organisational relations

1.4. Types of relationships - the impact of competition and cooperation

1.5. Bilateral and multilateral inter-organisational relations

1.6. Strong and weak inter-organisational relations

1.7. Diversity of relationships due to the characteristics of the parties

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

Chapter 2. Manufacturer - retailer relationships

Introduction

2.1. Characteristics of the parties to a manufacturer - retailer relationship

Retailers as a party to relationships with manufacturers

2.2. Manufacturers' business models vs. retailers' business models

2.3. Manufacturer - retailer relationships as a type of inter-organisational relations

2.4. Manufacturer - retailer relationships as an element of the strategy of the parties to the relation

2.5. Typology and characteristics of manufacturer - retailer relationships

2.6. Manufacturer - retailer competition

2.7. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation

2.8. Manufacturer - retailer coopetition

2.9. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation and coopetition versus manufacturer brand - retailer brand alliances

2.10. The scope of the manufacturer - retailer cooperation and coopetition

2.10.1. Cooperation in the promotional activities

2.10.2. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation in manufacturing products exclusively for the retailer or under retailer's own brands

2.10.3. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation/coopetition in planning and satisfying customers' needs, including the category management

2.10.4. Manufacturer - retailer cooperation in the CSR and sustainable development

2.11. Manufacturer - retailer coexistence

Summary

 

Andrzej Sznajder

Chapter 3. Determinants of manufacturer - retailer relationships

Introduction

3.1. Changes in customers' market behaviours as a determinant of changes in distribution systems - digital consumers

3.2. Legal conditions influencing the retail trade development

3.3. Changes in distribution channels as a result of the Internet and mobile technologies development

3.4. Multi-channel marketing concept

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Tomasz Napiórkowski,

Joanna Cygler, Andrzej Sznajder

Chapter 4. Manufacturer - retailer relationships in the Polish durable consumer

goods: market - the perspective of retailers and manufacturers

Introduction

4.1. Manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods market - the perspective of retailers

4.2. Relationships between durable consumer goods' manufacturers and retailers - the perspective of manufacturers

4.3. The importance of the cooperative and competitive dimensions of the

retailer - key manufacturer relationships and the balance of power, scope of

cooperation and benefits from the cooperation

4.4. The importance of the cooperative and competitive dimensions of the

manufacturer - key retailer relationships and the balance of power, the area of cooperation and benefits obtained from the cooperation

Summary

 

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Anna Napiórkowska

Chapter 5. Case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods' market

Introduction

5.1. Case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable consumer goods' market - the perspective of manufacturers

5.1.1. The case study of the relationship between MODECOM S. A. and retailers

5.1.2. The case study of the relationship between the manufacturer Polskie

Fabryki Porcelany "Ćmielów" i "Chodzież" S. A. and retailers

5.2. Selected case studies of manufacturer - retailer relationships in the durable

consumer goods' market - the perspective of retailers

5.2.1. The case study of the relationships between the Castorama retail

network and manufacturers of durable consumer goods in the Polish market

5.2.2. The case study of the relationships between the retail network SMYK with manufacturers - its suppliers

Summary

 

Conclusions

 

Bibliography

 

List of tables

 

List of diagrams

 

List of pictures

 

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